As this coronavirus pandemic is crossing about one years, more than 175 covid-19 vaccines are under development process out of which more than 25 are in human phase trial. It is really a fascinating number and their effectiveness if you consider the early pandemic eras.
Human history had witnessed much more devastating pandemic which kill the significant percent of the population at that time. The first pandemic history of humanity in 541 AD where 100 million people, which is the half of population of world, died in this plague disease.
After this a pandemic always come on every 10 years and killed about 20% of population in the world till 1665. Then Edward Jenner came with his ground breaking history to discover the World`s first vaccine. Afterwards many vaccines have been discovered for fatally infected disease such as Diphtheria, Measles and Polio which is so much effective that it eradicated many diseases from the world.
VACCINE MAKING PROCESS IN HISTORY
Earlier it was not the same way by which nowadays vaccines are being prepared by the scientists. A person was injected by the mild-virus by syringe. Then after a week, a posture formed at the spot. The doctor drew the pus from it and injected that in others body. By this human to human chain have been made to get success the vaccination process.
COVID-19 VACCINE PROCESS
But nowadays the process of vaccine making process is more accurate and also in scientific ways. Before this coronavirus pandemic 4-5 years were needed for making any vaccine. But in this case the time needed to prepare vaccine decrease to 1 years and less as there are immense pressure and work for it by the scientists. As a lot of work was done in vaccine making, only a few weeks were required by scientists to able to detect the virus in the body. Getting a vaccine ready is more complicated.
Normally for a novel virus vaccine it has to go for pre- clinical test to ensure that it is not actively harmful for human cells. After getting success three phase of human trial is started where a few people are vaccinated first then it is approved to use in larger mass. Each vaccine has to give trail for various ethnicity and races in the world to test its efficiency in global level. But reaching phase 3 trials in shorter time Oxford- Astrazeneca took an innovation way namely “Human Challenge Trial”.
Coronavirus is being intentionally used into volunteers to examine the effectiveness of this particular vaccine. In the phase 3 trial, some volunteers are given the vaccine and some are given placebo (which contain nothing but salt water). The process is totally random as neither the doctor nor the patient knew who are given vaccine or placebo. After the volunteers go back to their normal life, if any virus attack happens, then they are examined.
The Oxford vaccine and Pfizer`s vaccine seem to be more than 90 percent efficacy which can give us hope to fight the pandemic. But vaccinated all the people is a still a long way to go. But the success of this vaccines is a ray of hope that in near future we can stop the spread of this virus as we have done in case of Polio virus. Till then we have to maintain social distancing and use of mask to spread less of this virus.